A noncommercial collection of information about citizenship, dual citizenship and multiple citizenship

[Please refer to How to Read a Country Entry for help interpreting this material. It was produced prior to March 2001 as part of a US government report entitled Citizenship Laws of the World. The accuracy and depth of these country listings varies significantly, and some information may be incorrect. At best, this page presents only part of the story for a particular country. Additional information for this country may be available in Country Information]

How to Read a Country Entry

Citizenship information for the country entries are reported to have been obtained in one of the following ways:

  • (HCE) (HCS) (HCL) A hard copy of the citizenship laws was obtained from the embassy, the Department of State, or the Library of Congress. The entire law was reviewed, from which information was extracted.
  • (IPE) (IPS) (IPL) A questionnaire was completed by embassy, Department of State, or Library of Congress staff/representative. It is generally the most up-to-date source of information when an embassy responded thoroughly.
  • (TI) A telephone interview with a consular representative. It usually ensures the most up-to-date information

The quality and depth of these country listings varies significantly, and each listing presents only part of the story for a particular country. This information was collected before March 2001 and may be out of date.


The following information is presented in each country listing:

CITIZENSHIP: This section lists the various methods by which a person may obtain the citizenship of a country. A summary of the possible ways can be found in How Citizenship is Obtained


DUAL CITIZENSHIP: Dual citizenship is the simultaneous possession of two citizenships. It arises because there is no common international law relating to citizenship. The most common reasons for dual citizenship are these:

Not all nations recognize that their citizens may possess simultaneous citizenship of another country. In this directory, dual citizenship is addressed in the individual
country listings as either RECOGNIZED or NOT RECOGNIZED by that country. The EXCEPTION entries list any exceptions to recognition or non-recognition of dual citizenship.


LOSS OF CITIZENSHIP: This category is divided into two parts, the voluntary and the involuntary loss of citizenship.

1. Voluntary Loss of Citizenship: Most countries have laws which specify how a citizen may voluntarily renounce citizenship. Precise information on
renouncing citizenship may be obtained from the country's embassy or consulate. In most cases, the person can do all the necessary paperwork
through the embassy or consulate. Under the laws of some nations the person must return to the home country to complete the renunciation process.

Voluntary renunciation of citizenship may be very difficult for citizens of some countries. The U.S. Department of State may be of assistance to citizens who wish to gather information concerning the voluntary renunciation of citizenship of a particular country.

2. Involuntary Loss of Citizenship: This entry lists the reasons a particular country may choose to withdraw the citizenship of one of its citizens.

Most countries’ laws dictate the loss of citizenship upon a citizen’s voluntary acquisition of another country’s citizenship. The interpretation of what constitutes "voluntary" is not uniform, however. In certain countries it is not considered voluntary unless the person makes an explicit declaration of the citizenship of the other country. For example, in Austria a person automatically obtains Austrian citizenship when appointed as a professor at an Austrian university. Some countries interpret this as “involuntary” citizenship and, according to their laws, citizenship is not lost. Other countries state that if a citizen obtains another nationality, and makes no effort to renounce it, citizenship is lost.

Loss of naturalized citizenship usually occurs when the naturalized citizen:

Even if a nation’s laws state that under certain circumstances citizenship is automatically removed, until officials of the government or embassy are informed, the embassy will probably still retain that person's name in its citizenship records.


US specific information: This entry gives the address, phone number, and fax number of the representatives of the country in the United States. Most nations have an embassy in Washington, DC; some countries have a United Nations Mission in New York City or a trade mission elsewhere. There are some countries that either do not have a representative in the United States or which desire that their representatives not be contacted. They have provided us with no address or contact information. Two sources of information about these nations are the Library of Congress's International Law Library and the Department of State’s Office of Consular Affairs. Although these are not primary sources of information, they can be helpful in resolving citizenship questions.

If you are not in the US: Directly contact the desired embassy or consulate in your country. They may be listed in the local phone book, or can be found in the capital. The web sites listed in the US section may also provide useful information.

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